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General Information, Facts & Tables
[Natural Superlatives]

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Overview

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The lists below contain the extremes of naturally forming features.

See Also: Astronomical Superlatives, Human Superlatives, Man Made Superlatives, World Records.
 

Deepest Caves

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Cave

Location

Depth m

Depth ft

Krubera

Voronja, Georgia

2 170

7 119

Lamprechtsofen Vogelschacht Weg Schacht

Austria

1 632

5 354

Gouffre Mirolda

France

1 626

5 335

Réseau Jean Bernard

France

1 602

5 256

Torca del Cerro del Cuevon / Torca de las Saxifragas

Spain

1 589

5 213

Sarma

Georgia

1 543

5 062

Shakta Vjacheslav

Pantjukhina, Georgia

1 508

4 948

Cehi 2

Slovenia

1 502

4 928

Sistema Cheve

Cuicateco, Mexico

1 484

4 869

Sistema Huautla

Mexico

1 475

4 839

 

Longest Caves

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Cave

Location

Length m

Length ft

Mammoth Cave System

Kentucky, USA

367

590.6

Jewel Cave

South Dakota, USA

135

218.2

Optimisticeskaja

Ukraine

134

215.0

Wind Cave

South Dakota, USA

124

198.0

Holloch

Switzerland

120

193.6

Lechuguilla Cave

New Mexico, USA

120

193.4

Fisher Ridge System

Kentucky USA

110

177.3

Sistema Sac Actun

Mexico

97

155.4

Siebenhengste-hohgant

Switzerland

96

154.0

Sistema Ox Bel Ha

Mexico

91

146.8

 

Highest Mountains

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Mountain

Location

Height m

Height ft

Everest

Nepal / China

8 850

29 035

K2 (Chogon)

Pakistan / China

8 611

28 251

Kangchenjunga

Nepal / India

8 586

28 169

Lhotse

Nepal / China

8 516

27 940

Makalu 1

Nepal / China

8 485

27 838

Cho Oyu

Nepal / China

8 188

26 864

Dhaulagiri 1

Nepal

8 167

26 795

Manaslu 1 (Kutang II)

Nepal

8 163

26 781

Nanga Parbat (Diamir)

Pakistan

8 125

26 657

Annapurna

Nepal

8 091

26 545

 

Largest Islands

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Island

Location

Area sq km

Area sq miles

Greenland (Kalaatdlit Nunaat)

Greenland

2 175 600

840 004

New Guinea

Papua New Guinea / Indonesia 

785 753

303 381

Borneo

Indonesia / Malaysia / Brunei

748 168

288 869

Madagascar

Madagascar

587 713

226 917

Baffin Island

Canada

503 944

194 574

Sumatra

Indonesia

443 065

171 068

Honshu

Japan

227 413

87 805

Great Britain

Great Britain

218 077

84 200

Victoria Island

Canada

217 292

83 897

Ellesmere Island

Canada

196 236

75 767

 

Largest Deserts

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Desert

Location

Area sq km

Area sq miles

Sahara

Northern Africa

9 065 000

3 500 000

Takia Makan

Western China

1 600 000

618 000

Gobi

Mongolia / China

1 295 000

500 000

Kalahari

Southern Africa

582 000

225 000

Turkestan

Middle East / South West Russia

559 000

216 000

Chihuahuan

Arizona / New Mexico / Texas, USA

455 000

175 000

Great Basin

Idaho / Nevada / Oregon / Utah, USA

411 000

158 000

Iranian

Iran / Afghanistan / Pakistan

390 000

150 000

Great Victoria

Australia

338 500

131 000

Great Sandy

Australia

338 500

131 000

 

Largest Lakes

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Lake

Location

Area sq km

Area sq miles

Caspian Sea

Central Asia

386 400

149 200

Superior

Canada / USA

82 100

31 700

Victoria

Eastern Africa

69 485

26 828

Huron

Canada / USA

59 600

23 000

Michigan

USA

57 800

22 300

Aral Sea

Central Asia

33 800

13 000

Tanganyika

Eastern Africa

32 900

12 700

Great Bear

Northwest Territories, Canada

31 153

12 028

Nyasa (Malawi)

Eastern Africa

29 604

11 430

Great Slave

Northwest Territories, Canada

28 570

11 031

 

Largest Oceans / Seas

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Ocean / Sea

Area sq km (sq mi)

Volume cu km (cu mi)

Pacific (Including marginal seas)
Pacific (Excluding marginal seas) 

165 250 000 (63 800 000)
179 680 000 (69 370 000)

707 600 000 (169 900 000)
723 700 000 (173 700 000)

Atlantic (Including marginal seas)
Atlantic (Excluding marginal seas)

82 440 000 (31 830 000)
106 460 000 (41 100 000)

324 600 000 (77 900 000)
354 700 000 (85 200 000)

Indian (Including marginal seas)
Indian (Excluding marginal seas)

73 400 000 (28 360 000)
74 920 000 (28 930 000)

291 000 000 (69 900 000)
291 900 000 (70 100 000)

Arctic

14 090 000 (5 400 000)

17 000 000 (4 100 000)

Australasian Central Sea

8 140 000 (3 140 000)

9 900 000 (2 400 000)

Gulf of Mexico / Caribbean Seas

4 320 000 (1 670 000)

9 600 000 (2 300 000)

Mediterranean / Black Seas

2 970 000 (1 150 000)

4 200 000 (100 000)

Bering Sea

2 304 000 (890 000)

3 330 000 (80 000)

Sea of Okhotsk

1 583 000 (611 000)

1 300 000 (30 000)

Hudson Bay

1 230 000 (470 000)

160 000 (40 000)

 

Highest Waterfalls

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Waterfall

Location

Height m (ft)

Angel

Venezuela

980 (3 212)

Tugela

South Africa

947 (3 110)

Utigård

South Africa

800 (2 625)

Mongefoseen

Norway

774 (2 540)

Yosemite

California, USA

739 (2 425)

Østre Mardøla Foss

Norway

656 (2 154)

Tyssestrengane

Norway

646 (2 120)

Cuquenán

Venezuela

610 (2 000)

Sutherland

New Zealand

580 (1 904)

Takkakaw

British Columbia, Canada

502 (1 650)

 

Greatest Waterfalls by Flow

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Waterfall

Location

Flow cu m /s (cu ft / s)

Inga

Democratic Republic of Congo

42 476 (1 500 000)

Livingstone

Democratic Republic of Congo

35 113 (1 240 00)

Boyoma (Stanley)

Democratic Republic of Congo

16 990 (600 000)

Guira

Brazil / Paraguay

13 909 (491 190)

Khône

Laos

10 783 (410 000)

Niagara (Horseshoe)

Canada / USA

6 009 (212 200)

Celilo

USA

5 415 (191 215)

Salto-Pará

Venezuela

3 540 (125 000)

Paulo Afonso

Brazil

2 832 (100 000)

Iguaçu

Argentina / Brazil

1 746 (61 660)

 

Highest Active Volcanoes (last 100 years)

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Volcano

Location

Height m (ft)

Last Eruption

Tupungato

Chile / Argentina

6 570 (21 555)

1986

Pular

Chile

6 233 (20 449)

1990

San Pedro

Chile

6 145 (20 161)

1960

Aracar

Argentina

6 082 (19 954)

1993

Guallatiri

Chile

6 071 (19 918)

1985

Tacora

Chile

5 980 (19 619)

1937

Sabancaya

Peru

5 967 (19 576)

2003

Cotopaxi

Ecuador

5 911 (19 393)

1942

Putana

Chile

5 890 (19 324)

1972

San Jose

Chile

5 856 (19 213)

1960

 

Longest Rivers

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River

Location

Outflow

Length m (km)

Nile

Africa

Mediterranean Sea

4 132 (6 650)

Amazon

South America

South Atlantic Ocean

4 000 (6 400)

Yangtze (Chang Jiang)

Asia

East China Sea

3 915 (6 300)

Yenisey-Baikai-Selenga

Asia

Kara Sea

3 442 (5 540)

Huang Ho (Yellow)

Asia

Gulf of Chihli

3 395 (5 464)

Ob - Irtysh

Asia

Gulf of Ob

3 362 (5 410)

Zaire (Congo)

Africa

South Atlantic Ocean

2 900 (4 700)

Amur-Argun

Asia

Sea of Okhotsk

2 761 (4 444)

Lena

Asia

Laptev Sea

2 734 (4 400)

Mekonk

Asia

South China Sea

2 700 (4 350)

 

Greatest River Systems by Discharge

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River

Location

Average Discharge cu m/s (cu ft/sec)

Amazon

South America

219 000 (7 733 912)

Zaire (Congo)

Africa

41 800 (1 476 153)

Yangtze (Chang Jiang)

Asia

31 900 (1 126 537)

Orinoco

South America

28 000 (988 810)

Brahmaputra (Tsangpo)

Asia

20 000 (706 293)

Yenisey-Angara

Asia

19 600 (692 167)

Rio de la Plata-Paraná-Uruguay

South America

19 500 (688 636)

Mississippi-Missouri

North America

17 545 (619 595)

Lena

Asia

16 400 (579 160)

Mekong

Mekong

15 900 (561 503)

 

Deepest Ocean Trenches

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Trench

Ocean

Deepest Point m (ft)

Marianas

Pacific

10 911 (35 798)

Tonga

Pacific 

10 882 (35 702)

Philippine

Pacific 

10 540 (34 580)

Kuril-Kamchatka

Pacific 

10 500 (34 449)

Kermadec

Pacific 

10 047 (32 963)

Bonin

Pacific 

9 994 (32 789)

New Britain

Pacific 

9 940 (32 612)

Izu

Pacific 

9 780 (32 087)

Puerto Rico

Atlantic

8 605 (28 232)

Yap

Pacific

8 527 (27 976)

 

Deepest Depressions

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Depression

Location

Depth below sea level m (ft)

Dead Sea

Israel / Jordan

400 (1 312)

Lake Assal

Djibouti

156 (511)

Turfan Depression

China

154 (505)

Qattâra Depression

Egypt

133 (436)

Mangyshlak Peninsula

Kazakhstan

132 (433)

Danakil Depression

Ethiopia

117 (383)

Death Valley

California, USA

86 (282)

Salton Sink

California, USA

72 (235)

Zapadny Chink Ustyurta

Kazakhstan

70 (230)

Prikaspiyskaya Nizmennost

Kazakhstan / Russia

67 (220)

 

Most Common Elements in the Earth's Crust

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Element

Parts per million

Oxygen

461 000

Silicon

282 000

Aluminium

82 300

Iron

56 300

Calcium

41 500

Sodium

23 600

Magnesium

23 300

Potassium

20 900

Titanium

5 650

Hydrogen

1 400

ppm = mg per kg based on average percentages of elements in igneous rock.
 

Most Common Elements in the Oceans / Seas

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Element

Milligram per litre

Oxygen *

857 000

Hydrogen *

107 800

Chlorine

19 870

Sodium

11 050

Magnesium

1 326

Sulphur

928

Calcium

422

Potassium

416

Bromine

67

Carbon

28

* Combined as water.