 # General Information, Facts & Tables [Mathematical Symbols]

Overview

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The tables below list the most common math and geometry symbols and their meaning.Ā
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Mathematical Symbols

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 Upper Case Name & Description + plus / addition - minus / subtraction ´ multiply / times * multiply / times · multiply / times / divide ¸ divide ± plus or minus / add or subtract / positive or negative = equals / equal to ¹ not equal to » approximately equal to º equivalent to / identically equal to / congruent to < less than £ less than or equal to > greater than ³ greater than or equal to µ varies as / proportional to ~ absolute difference of : proportion / ratio . decimal point , decimal marker % per cent / out of 100 ‰ per mil / out of 1 000 000 ( ) brackets / parentheses á ñ angle brackets [ ] square brackets { } curly brackets / braces [x] largest whole number which is not greater than x |x| absolute value of x x2 x squared x3 x cubed Āxn x to the power n Ö square root 3Ö cube root nÖĀ nth root Ð angle || is parallel to is not parallel to ^ is perpendicular to º degrees ' minutes " seconds Ç intersection È union É includes Ë is not a subset of Ì is a subset of Î is a member of Ï is not a member of Æ empty set / null Þ implies Ü is implied by Û implies and is implied by \ therefore ¥ infinity n! factorial n !n sub factorial n / derangements of n i square root of -1 e mathematical constant "e" p mathematical constant "pi" f(x) function of x f'(x) first derivative of x ¦ integral / anti-derivative & hexadecimal prefix å sum of Ā set of natural numbers Ā set of whole numbers Ā set of rational numbers Ā set of all complex numbers

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Mathematical Letter Designations

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 Abbreviation Full term AP arithmetic progression APR annual percentage rate cu cubic dp decimal places gcd greatest common denominator hcf highest common factor lcd lowest common denominator lcm lowest common multiple m gradient (slope) of a line mod modulus QED which was to be proved sf significant figures sq square UT universal time

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The symbols in the first column require that the font "Symbol" is installed.
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