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General Information, Facts & Tables
[Mathematical Symbols]

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Overview

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The tables below list the most common math and geometry symbols and their meaning. 
 

Mathematical Symbols

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Upper Case

Name & Description

+

plus / addition

-

minus / subtraction

´

multiply / times

*

multiply / times

·

multiply / times

/

divide

¸

divide

±

plus or minus / add or subtract / positive or negative

=

equals / equal to

¹

not equal to

»

approximately equal to

º

equivalent to / identically equal to / congruent to

<

less than

£

less than or equal to

>

greater than

³

greater than or equal to

µ

varies as / proportional to

~

absolute difference of

:

proportion / ratio

.

decimal point

,

decimal marker

%

per cent / out of 100

per mil / out of 1 000 000

( )

brackets / parentheses

á ñ

angle brackets

[ ]

square brackets

{ }

curly brackets / braces

[x]

largest whole number which is not greater than x

|x|

absolute value of x

x2

x squared

x3

x cubed

 xn

x to the power n

Ö

square root

3Ö

cube root

nÖ 

nth root

Ð

angle

||

is parallel to

MthSym01.gif

is not parallel to

^

is perpendicular to

º

degrees

'

minutes

"

seconds

Ç

intersection

È

union

É

includes

Ë

is not a subset of

Ì

is a subset of

Î

is a member of

Ï

is not a member of

Æ

empty set / null

Þ

implies

Ü

is implied by

Û

implies and is implied by

\

therefore

¥

infinity

n!

factorial n

!n

sub factorial n / derangements of n

i

square root of -1

e

mathematical constant "e"

p

mathematical constant "pi"

f(x)

function of x

f'(x)

first derivative of x

¦

integral / anti-derivative

&

hexadecimal prefix

å

sum of

MthSym02.gif 

set of natural numbers

MthSym03.gif 

set of whole numbers

MthSym04.gif 

set of rational numbers

MthSym05.gif 

set of all complex numbers

 

Mathematical Letter Designations

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Abbreviation

Full term

AP

arithmetic progression

APR

annual percentage rate

cu

cubic

dp

decimal places

gcd

greatest common denominator

hcf

highest common factor

lcd

lowest common denominator

lcm

lowest common multiple

m

gradient (slope) of a line

mod

modulus

QED

which was to be proved

sf

significant figures

sq

square

UT

universal time

 

Notes

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The symbols in the first column require that the font "Symbol" is installed.